Bridging the learning gap caused by COVID-19 and providing support for students who have fallen behind academically is a key challenge for all schools, but learning loss has been particularly severe for some. The attainment gap will inevitably widen as a result of recent school closures (EPI, 2020), with year group / bubble quarantining posing an ongoing concern.
Unfortunately, students with a vocabulary deficit are at a further disadvantage, and studies have shown that this word gap affects their progress, wellbeing and lifelong prospects (OUP, 2018).
A positively framed 'recovery curriculum' (Carpenter and Carpenter, 2020) can help to set the tone and context for this year’s learning, but many schools are focusing on cornerstones of learning - reading, writing and oracy - with vocabulary development at the core of their curriculum design.
For Mary Myatt, vocabulary is one of the ‘instruments’ of curriculum development (2018), and the Education Endowment Fund also emphasises the importance of aligning vocabulary instruction with curriculum development. The EEF report, ‘Improving Literacy in Secondary Schools’ (2019) advocates targeted vocabulary development in every subject, and for subject teachers to develop direct and indirect approaches to teaching new words, and to make explicit word links between subjects.
Three research schools have shared their experiences of explicitly focusing on vocabulary development. Huntingdon has introduced a vocabulary-led curriculum, opening ‘word doors’ for their students. Durrington High School began a whole-school literacy focus in 2017 based on explicit vocabulary instruction with investment in staff CPD. Now all curriculum areas have adopted evidence-based practices for vocabulary instruction, and the school has five-year vocabulary curriculum maps.
Greenshaw High School wanted to remove the ‘tendency to see vocabulary teaching as additional to the curriculum rather than it being equivalent to the curriculum…’. Their ‘Big words for Big Ideas’ project has helped to introduce over a thousand new words to KS3 students.
Feldman and Kinsella (2004) stress the importance of four key elements to support vocabulary development, which can be easily embedded into a whole-school approach:
We can all help to change the ‘word poor’ into the ‘word rich’ (Quigley, 2018) by providing an enriched language environment, by focusing on students’ oracy and written skills and by celebrating new words and exploring their variety.
In collaboration with Oxford University Press, we’ve created a wide range of materials to support vocabulary development and close the word gap:
Secondary word gap resources:
Education Policy Institute (2020) Preventing the disadvantage gap from increasing during and after the Covid-19 pandemic
Education Endowment Fund (2020) Covid 19 support guide for schools
Carpenter, B. and Carpenter, M. (2020) A Recovery Curriculum: Loss and Life for our children and schools post pandemic
Myatt, M. (2018) The Curriculum Gallimaufry to coherence (John Catt)
Education Endowment Fund (2019) Improving Literacy in Secondary Schools
Oxford University Press (2018) Why Closing the Word Gap Matters
Quigley, A. (2018) Closing the Vocabulary Gap (David Fulton)
Feldman, K. and Kinsella, K. (2004): Narrowing the Language gap: The case for explicit vocabulary instruction
Read about the research schools’ vocabulary development work: